The Art of Error Recovery
When you make a mistake that puts a client behind the eight-ball, your appropriate response can salvage Ė and even strengthen Ė the client relationship.
Alexander Pope wrote, "To err is human, to forgive divine," he probably hadnít
just gotten off the phone with his attorney. If he had, he might have tacked on
this qualifier: "... unless the erring party has an ĎEsq.í after his name and
whose hourly rate is greater than the GDP of Cambodia."
canít say why for sure (although I have a few theories), but thereís something
about interacting with an attorney that often exposes peopleís dark sides.
Consider an otherwise kind, charitable soul whose closest-ever brush with
violence grew out of a brief debate over the best key in which to sing "Amazing
Grace." But tell them that their lawyer made a mistake in handling their matter,
and in the bat of an eye they become about as rational and forgiving as a North
it or not, you are human and, try as you might to avoid mistakes, you are doomed
to make them. The big question is: How do you respond when you make a mistake
that affects a client? Itís worth considering Ė in advance Ė because there may
be no more important factor in whether you hang on to your clients and how
successful you are in growing your practice.
of Errors, Reactions
attorney, your potential for committing errors knows no bounds. Your mistakes
can cover the entire spectrum, from No Big Deal (missing a typo, being late for
a meeting, etc.) to Screwing the Pooch (recording a lien in Santa Cruz County,
Arizona, instead of Santa Cruz County, California; thinking the hearing was set
for two weeks from yesterday, not yesterday, etc.).
a client relations standpoint, the gravity of the blunder may not be as
important as the clientís reaction to it. You probably have clients who, if you
told them that youíd made a small goof and that their $10 million claim had been
thrown out, would say, "Oh, well, we all make mistakes," and others who, on
learning that the demand letter you promised by noon wonít be ready until 12:15,
report you to the Bar.
though no two mistakes, or your clientsí reactions to them, are the same, you
should still develop an error-recovery procedure that you can follow when the
stuff hits the fan, or looks like itís about to.
Beat Your Client to the Punch
you find out youíve made an error before your client does, and if there is any
chance that he will learn about it whether you tell him or not, do the smart and
honorable thing: Tell him Ė before he learns about it on his own or from someone
takes guts, but itís a lot better than sitting around with the Sword of Damocles
hanging over your head, cringing whenever the phone rings, and feeling around
under your dashboard before every start-up, wondering if the client knows
what youíve done and what heís going to do to you when he finds out.
some benefits to full disclosure:
After your client finishes swearing at you and telling
you how much heís going to enjoy reading about your license being yanked, he
may give you credit for being courageous. Sloppy and incompetent, perhaps,
Conversely, if you let him find out on his own, a certain amount of time
will elapse between discovery and response. During that period, he can work
up a pretty uncharitable attitude toward you that, by the time you get to
discuss your mistake with him, may be irreversible (especially if he thinks
youíve been ducking him).
you alert your client to the mistake, you can tell him, in appropriate
detail, what youíve done to make things right (if thatís possible), and/or
you can propose some method of atonement, such as a fee adjustment, free
services, an offer to help out around the house, etc. (Caution: Donít be too
quick to make such offers. If the client turns out to be less upset than you
expected, you may needlessly give away the store. Further, your resolution
plan should not include lavish gifts, cash, prostitutes, or other phony
attempts to get back in his good graces.)
Fix the error, if
you can. Make fixing the error your top
priority. The longer the problem goes unaddressed, the longer the client has to
worry, think evil thoughts about you, and memorize the names of professional
the music. If the magnitude of the
error, or the clientís reaction to it, warrants a face-to-face meeting, break
the news in person. Offer to meet at his home or office. Meeting at your office
may not be a good idea Ė itís bad enough that youíve made a mistake at his
expense; donít make matters worse by making him come see you. Besides, heís less
likely to bust up the furniture if heís in his own home or office, and if he
starts screaming there wonít be other clients within earshot.
Accept responsibility. No matter who
actually committed the error, you must be the responsible party. If you made the
mistake, itís your fault. Likewise, if your secretary or paralegal or clerk or
the mailman or sunspots caused the problem, itís your fault. Youíre the
attorney, you make the big bucks, and youíre the one whoís supposed to be
getting your clients out of trouble, not digging a deeper hole for them.
Throwing your secretary under the bus isnít going to calm him
down. ("Oh, it was your secretary who put my out of business. Why didnít you say so? Here,
let me call my other lawyer right now and tell him to just forget about
that silly old lawsuit.")
be defensive. This is a close cousin to
"accept responsibility." The client is less interested in why or how the mistake
was made than in what youíre going to do about it. Thus, explaining that the
error was caused by your working too hard or too late, by incompetent help, by
your crack habit, etc., is a waste of breath and will only make him madder.
"Iím sorry." An apology wonít make the
problem go away, but any resolution of the fiasco should include your looking
your client in the eye (or in the phone) and telling him that youíre sorry.
But donít grovel, unless you think the sight of you down on your knees at the
front door of his house, blubbering and begging for one more chance, will make him forget
about your foul-up. Also, be careful about putting your apology in writing. You
donít want to give your client something he can pull out and re-read when heís
drunk or in a litigious mood.
Respect the clientís concern. If the
client pitches a major fit over your mistake, let him know that you feel nearly
as bad about things as he does. If he feels terrible, you feel terrible. Trying
to cheer him up or make him think itís not that big a deal will likely backfire.
Let him decide when itís no longer that big a deal.
On the other hand, if
the client takes your mistake in stride and wants to get on with things, let
him. Even if youíre still embarrassed and upset by the error, donít keep
bringing it up and saying how sorry you are and how you donít deserve to go on living.
He might decide you're right.
hang your clients out to dry. If your
mistake lands your client in dutch with someone else Ė a lender, a buyer, his
bookie Ė make contacting that person and accepting the blame a part of your
proposed resolution. There are at least four good reasons to make that offer:
Itís the right thing to do, and maybe it will
assuage your conscience a little bit.
Your client will probably appreciate your trying to get him off the hook,
and if he ever speaks to you again he may even tell you so.
You are likely to use less critical and colorful language
than your client to describe your
error, your character and your lineage.
Ironically, your candor and courage may make a net favorable impression on
the third party. Instead of being known only as a dangerous idiot who nearly
screwed up your clientís life, you may be the only attorney that person
knows who demonstrates honor and integrity and is willing to own up to his or
keep your error a secret. If the problem
is a major one, and if it carries the potential for big problems for you and/or
the firm, get the perspective of trusted colleagues who may be more skilled than
damage control and malpractice avoidance. Even if the problem
doesnít hold grave consequences, consider discussing the error with any other
attorneys and staff who are likely to come into contact with that client.
Filling them in may keep them from saying or doing something out of ignorance
that may only make matters worse.
Adequate error-recovery skills may help salvage a client relationship
that otherwise would have gone down in flames. Moreover, attorneys who react
well to their own errors know that an appropriate response can not only save, but
actually strengthen, their ties with a client. Honest.